Posts Tagged australia day
Embracing those golden moments of understanding – The Drum Opinion - We’re extremely blessed that we’ve been given a place where we might just be able to make it all work, if we put our differences aside. (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
Find more Stories Embracing those golden moments of understanding
Sitting in a pub just outside of the Rock district, a couple of nights back, I got to thinking about Australia Day.
You see, earlier that day I’d spread the papers about the living room of my in-law’s home and noticed quite a few pieces addressing the meaning and symbolism of the holiday. Responses seemed to be divided into two camps – self-congratulatory barbeque-themed odes to the sun-bleached lifestyle and hand-wringing, chest-thumping missives condemning the holiday as a racist revel and a bogan bacchanal.
Sipping a really rather tasty red ale, I pondered these two contradictory notions of what it means to celebrate Australia Day. In an effort to understand it all, I cast my mind back over years of readings of Australian history, of stories dug out from the pages of yellowed letters and archive boxes back when I got paid to study history for a living.
I think I came to a conclusion. Hear me out.
Australian history, it must be said, is one long succession of stuff-ups, atrocities, mad ideas and plunderings. It’s quite often a tragic tale, told in blazing sunshine, all mad from thirst and hunger. It’s hard. It’s flinty. Anger and fear loom large and drive the story onwards.
However, there are many tales of staggering beauty, of kindness, of understanding and of peace. There’s a striking number of moments when the clouds roll back and for a moment, it’s golden.
They’re unlikely moments. They’re moments that bloom, despite the odds. They’re moments that could only happen here, in Australia, in a place where wave after wave of people have washed up to make a new start.
They’re moments when Australians put the bullshit aside and come together in an attempt to understand.
Take the story of William Dawes and Patyegarang.
William Dawes was a Royal Marine, who at age 26 landed in the Sydney area with the First Fleet. A bookish, rather reserved fellow – we’d probably call him a bit of a nerd – Dawes had shown himself to be a fairly dab hand at charting the stars. as a consequence, he was dispatched to the point that now bears his name in order to chart the expected arrival of a comet.
Dawes built a hut where the southern pylon of the Sydney Harbour Bridge stands today and there, while he waited for the arrival of the comet in the southern skies, he struck up a friendship with many of the local Cadigal people.
One of those of whom he met at that time was a 15-year-old girl, Patyegarang.
What we know of Dawes and Patyegarang – or Patye, as he called her – come from a collection of notebooks that he took with him when he left the colony. In those notebooks, he made the first real study of Indigenous languages. Patye was his guide and his teacher.
Through the notebooks, we see Dawes pick up the local names for many examples of local flora and fauna, and the customs of the Cadigal.
Bógul – The mouse.
Tam-mun – The fig tree.
Goo-me-dah – The name given to dead bodies, or spirits.
However, through Dawes’ notebook and diary entries, we also get a sense that his relationship with Patye became a lot more intimate.
Putuwá – To warm ones hand by the fire and then to squeeze gently the fingers of another person.
At this time Patyegarang was standing by the fire naked and I desired her to put on her cloaths (sic), on which she said Goredya taragin, the full meaning of which is ‘I will or do remain longer naked in order to get warm sooner, as the fire is felt better without cloaths than if it had to penetrate thro (sic) them.
While it may seem shocking today that a 26-year-old man would allow himself to become quite so intimate with a 15-year-old girl, there’s something that sets aside Dawes and Patyegarang’s relationship – in my eyes, it’s the real desire to learn and to understand that both express throughout course of Dawe’s recollections. Rather than just some sort of carnal bond, what brought them together, more than anything else, was the desire to understand, to think things through, to gain a picture of each other’s worlds.
Of course it couldn’t last. Dawes was dismissed from the colony in disgrace after he refused to participate in a hunt for some Cadigal men who had killed the colony’s gamekeeper. He would serve in Sierra Leone, fighting against slavery before dying in England in 1836.
As for Patyegarang – well, history doesn’t record what happened to her, but it is assumed she either succumbed to one of the diseases introduced by the colony or fled inland to live out the rest of her days.
Yes, it was only a fleeting relationship. Yet it was one of those golden moments, a moment in time that demonstrated how the two worlds – settler and local – could enter a place of understanding.
One should also consider Mei Quong Tart, the merchant.
Quong arrived on that tidal wave of migrants that came to Australia following the discovery of gold in the 1850s. Living with a merchant, he was eventually adopted by a local family, who encouraged him, along with his family back in China, to start purchasing gold leases.
Come early adulthood and Quong was rich. Not only was he rich, but he was well-liked, a pillar of his local community and a naturalised citizen of the colony. Quong knew that he was in a place of tremendous opportunity and did everything he could to take advantage of what his new home provided.
In 1881 he opened a store selling tea and silk. Over the years he would purchase more properties and restaurants throughout Sydney and forge himself a business empire, the rival of many of the large business interests that existed at the time. He wore the finest clothes, lived in a well-appointed home, married an English woman and had four children.
He did everything he could to show that he was a new South Welshman. He moved through society acting as a benefactor to many charitable organisations. He hosted a number of regular dinners for the destitute. Workers in his restaurants were given sick leave, something pretty rare at the time.
Yet, he never forgot where he came from. Quong was known for his crusades against the opium that was killing his countrymen on the goldfields, as well as anti-Chinese violence. He circulated petitions and accompanied the police on their visits to the goldfields to act as interpreter and guide. He demonstrated a community spirit and altruistic bent that seldom few could match today.
It’s also worth considering that Quong achieved all of this in that 50 or so years of the 19th century where anti-Chinese rhetoric and zealotry was approaching its zenith in the colonies. He made his fortune in the years after Lambing Flat and he died shortly after the passing of the Immigration Restriction Act.
Quong died just after the turn of the century. his home was burgled and he never really managed to recover, yet his funeral attracted vast crowds, including the absolute cream of Sydney society.
Yes, the years after his passing would usher in the White Australia Policy and in the century since his death we’ve seen some dark times for race relations in Australia. Yet, in making the most of his new home, Quong demonstrated a drive to understand, to take the two worlds in which he lived and make them one, to everyone’s benefit.
For a brief moment, he demonstrated that it could be done.
This week, I think it’s a good idea to ponder the fact that we’re a nation made up of from those from all over the world who saw the opportunity to make a go of it in a peaceful, stable place free from tyranny and violence. I believe it’s necessary to consider the fact that each and every one of us come from a different physical, mental, spiritual, sexual and political place.
It’s then vital to understand that we’re extremely blessed that we’ve been given a place where we might just be able to make it all work, if we put our differences aside.
Understanding. That’s what we should be celebrating on Australia Day.
Mike Stuchbery is a high school English and Civics teacher, writer and occasional broadcaster living in Melbourne’s western suburbs. View his full profile here.
Embracing those golden moments of understanding – The Drum Opinion -
We’re extremely blessed that we’ve been given a place where we might just be able to make it all work, if we put our differences aside. (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
Sydneysiders celebrated Australia Day with smoking ceremonies, ferry dashes, wheelchair races and giant inflatable thongs as a host of new Aussies were welcomed into the fold.
The festivities kicked off with a traditional Aboriginal smoking ceremony at the Royal Botanic Gardens.
Crowds undeterred by the miserable early weather soon began gathering around the harbour foreshore, some dressed in shirts and hats bearing the Aussie Flag.
Speaking at the nearby Botanic Gardens after competing in a harbour swimming race, Federal Opposition Leader Tony Abbott said Australia wasn't perfect but it was the “greatest country on earth”.
Mr Abbott also used the occasion to call for the Aboriginal tent embassy to be disbanded, saying things had changed for the better since it was set up 40 years ago and was time to “move on”.
The comments lead to dramatic scenes in Canberra later as protesters clashed with mr Abbott and Prime Minister Julia Gillard, trapping them in a Canberra restaurant before riot police arrived.
Meanwhile, 3000 people across NSW prepared to take the pledge of allegiance and become Australia's newest citizens.
At Luna Park, citizenship minister Chris Bowen said he wasn't surprised so many people wanted to call Australia home.
“We say without a shred of arrogance or parochialism, that Australia's the best country in the world,” he said, before officially swearing in 30 new citizens.
At another citizenship ceremony in Sydney's Hyde Park, Lord Mayor Clover Moore urged new Australians to contribute to their new country.
“We all should strive to make a mark, to leave our community, our city and our country a better place,” she said.
In the Rocks, Australia's Kurt Fearnley won the Oz Day 10k Wheel Chair race for an eighth consecutive time, breaking his own course record and smashing a field of international competition.
After the race, NSW Premier Barry O'Farrell said Australia was a place where people are judged on their ability.
“It's just fantastic that people from 200 different cultural backgrounds are able to come together and forge an identity,” he said.
Along the foreshore, thousands gathered to watch a tight finish at the Australia Day Ferrython and at midday, while Sydney was rocked by the sound of gunfire as the Australian Army's 7th Field Regiment carried out a 21 gun-salute at Farm Cove.
Thousands of people gathered on Bondi Beach to lap up the afternoon sun, with guitars, Australian flags and beer cans spotting the sand.
Another 200 revellers gathered on the beach's rock pool to listen to Triple J's hottest 100 countdown, drink beers and dip their toes in the ocean.
Life Surf Saving Patrol Captain Michael Gencher said the weather had made for a relatively peaceful day for the gold and red caps.
“Usually it's been a day fraught with headaches and troubles … but the weather has made it a very easy day for us,” he told AAP.
Earlier at Bondi more than 1350 people braved the weather and dived into the surf to try and link up the world's longest line of inflatable thongs.
At Sydney's Olympic Park, the frontman of a band playing at Sydney's big Day out music festival was hospitalised after jumping off the stage into the crowd.
The performer was one of five people who were taken to hospital during the annual music festival, a spokesman from NSW Ambulance told AAP.
The others suffered minor injuries or were hospitalised due to intoxication, he said.
NSW governor Marie Bashir paid tribute to indigenous Australians and the original settlers of modern Australia in her Australia Day address.
“Australians today are bound together by those challenges which never cease – the devastating floods, the drought, the bushfires, to which our fellows so often volunteer and swiftly respond with skill,” Ms Bashir said in Sydney's Darling Harbour on Thursday evening.
But she said there was no place for complacency.
She urged all Australians to work towards peace and prosperity with our neighbours in Asia Pacific.
Australian of the Year Geoffrey rush and Young Australian of the Year Marita Cheng were also celebrating in Darling Harbour.
A fireworks display will cap off the festivities on Thursday night.
Heavy rainfall has been replaced by sunshine at Sydney's big Day out, pleasing everyone but the poncho sellers.
An estimated 47,000 revellers packed Homebush for the Australia Day music festival with early storms passing to the delight of excited crowds.
Early sets from Sydney rock band Papa vs Pretty and upcoming indie act Nantes pulled in the traditional demographic of teens and 20-somethings.
ARIA champions Boy & Bear provided the first feel good sing-along with their cover of Crowded House's Fall At Your Feet, before the Jezabels celebrated their Rolling Stone award for Best Album with a storming set.
Hilltop Hoods pulled the biggest crowd of the afternoon and thanked fans for showing “twice as much love as Gold Coast”.
US rapper Kanye West and re-formed grunge legends Soundgarden will headline after British band Kasabian, who are expected to draw a huge crowd following their triumphant show at the Hordern Pavilion on Tuesday.
Big Day out has come under savage scrutiny in the past weeks, following slow ticket sales, bungles over headline bookings, the split of co-founders Ken West and Vivian Lees, and the announcement of next year's withdrawal from new Zealand.
West said despite its problems the festival will come back stronger in 2012, hinting at moves into new territories following a strategic partnership with US promotion company C3 Presents.
“Whatever direction big Day out moves next, its heart will remain in Sydney where it began 20 years ago. I never thought it would last a year let alone twenty,” West told AAP.
“So many people have grown up with the big Day out but lasting this long with the same passion involves not growing up at all, it still feels like the circus comes to town for me every year.
“We started in Sydney and it's my sentimental favourite and it's always been our biggest show so we all are very excited.”
At 5pm, ambulance officials painted a positive picture of the festival with only six people taken to hospital, mainly for intoxication and one person with a broken leg.
NSW Police declined to give information on arrests until their operation is completed at 11pm (AEDT).
Several arrests were seen taking place with a heavy police presence around entrance points and through the festival site.
Updated January 24, 2012 14:15:12
Prominent neurosurgeon Charlie Teo has called on all Australians to share their country and put aside their anger, in his Australia Day address.
In the lead-up to his keynote speech, which he delivered in Sydney last night, Dr Teo said in a number of interviews that racism was all too common in Australia.
He repeated that point last night, but also urged all Australians to turn their backs on what he said was a rising tide of rage in Australian society.
He said he wanted everyone who found themselves angry and intolerant to think first about the misfortunes of those who were less fortunate, such as the cancer patients he met through his work as a surgeon.
“I am saddened by the increasing incidents of rage in our society,” he said.
“Once there was only road rage but now it seems to have spread into the workplace, the malls and even the last bastion of the laid-back, free spirited Aussie, the surf.
“I don’t wish to trivialise the adversities of everyday life, but when a mother has just lost her son to brain cancer, or a husband his wife, or a daughter her father, and I see this seven days a week, 365 days of the year, it makes the driver who overtakes on the left or the surfer who cuts in on your wave, seem so inconsequential.
“I am sure, if you are one of those angry people, if you could spend a day in my shoes, you would rapidly attain a more realistic perspective that the most important determinant of happiness is our health and the health of our loved ones.
“I want anyone who has come from another country to embrace the Australian way of life. It has served us well,” he added.
“I want all Australians to see how immigrants have contributed to our nation and to appreciate that a rich and prosperous country such as ours has a moral and global responsibility to share our resources.
“Finally I want to thank Australians for giving me professional and personal fulfilment, for believing in me when some of my colleagues didn’t, for seeing a Chinaman as an Aussie, not as a foreigner.”
Dr Teo also criticised both sides of politics for their stance on refugees, saying Australia had a moral obligation to demonstrate greater kindness to refugees.
“I don’t know how this may be achieved, but I certainly know that both sides of the political fence are floundering,” he said.
first posted January 23, 2012 21:21:03
Before Europeans arrived to this location, Aboriginal and Torres Strait people lived on this continent. The people spoke hundreds of different languages, had special cultural traditions, and lifestyles depending on where they lived. there is a deep connection for different Australians concerning their land and environment.
Mariners and traders worked with the original Australians for centuries before the Europeans expanded into this land. The first European contact that was recorded happened in 1606 thanks to the exploration of Willem Janszoon charting the Cape York Peninsula. another explorer named Luis Vaez de Torres came through Australia and Papa new Guinea. That started many explorers and traders to continue coming to this land. in 1688 William Dampier was the first British traveler to land on the Australian coast line. in 1770, Captain James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the British crown.
Britain turned this area into a penal colony with 11 ships carrying over 1500 people-half of them convicted criminals. The fleet pulled into Sydney Harbour on January 26, 1788. This is the Australia Day, and is celebrated each year.
From 1788 to 1868, 160,000 convicted criminals were brought to Australia to live. This carried on until the end of penal transportation. Along with the criminals, free immigrants arrived on this land too. The wool industry and gold rushes of the 1850′s called on many people to travel to Australia.
This land offered new wealth to anyone willing to work by farming, mining, and trading. This penal colony turned into a land of opportunity. Sadly during this period, the indigenous Australians did not do well. they suffered and died by illnesses and displacement.
A new Nation Is Formed
In 1901, the common wealth of Australia was made by the federation of six states under just one constitution. The non-indigenous population of Australia was 3.8 million. half of them lived in cities, three quarters were born in this land, and most of them were English, Scottish, or Irish descent.
The founders of this new nation had great hopes. they wanted everyone to be happy and live good and prosperous lives. they believed in the importance of human rights along with using democratic procedures. The also understood the value of a secret ballot.
The new commonwealth passed an Immigration Restriction Act in 1901. This restricted people of mainly European origin. This act was no good after World War Two. Now Australia has a non-discriminatory policy. People from over 200 countries call this land their home.
From 1900 to 1914 big changes took place in this land. Australia grew in agricultural and manufacturing. they also made great improvements to their government and social services.
World War One devastated Australia. The men fought and died bravely. Many were injured during this war too. Out of less than 3 million men, 400,000 volunteered to fight. 60,000 were killed and tens of thousands were injured.
This experience showed the world of Australia’s values. The Anzac of courage and spirit. Every year on April 25, Australia remembers the brave soldiers that have fought.
Between The Wars
The time between the two world wars was a time of uncertainty and instability. Many Australian financial institutions went down. during World War Two Australian soldier made a big contribution to the victory in Europe, Asia, and the Pacific.
After The War
After the war was over, Australia prospered. Millions of travelers come to Australia looking for a new life. Men and women both were able to do as they wanted. Many women chose to keep the jobs that they had been doing while the war was going on. they worked in factories and other places even in the time of peace.
The economy just got stronger in the 1950′s. The Snowy Mountain Scheme went well. also home ownership made a dramatic improvement to over 70% of the population. The social security net and television were other fantastic achievements. in 1956, Melbourne hosted the Olympics. in 2000, Sydney got the honor.
Times changed in the 1960′s. everything from political changes to economic and social changes. Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians joined together. The indigenous residents were included in the censuses.
The National parties ended in 1972. The Australian Labor Party was voted in. there were many changes. in 1975, there were a major defeat for the Labor Party. they rose again in 1983.
Many things improved. they deregulated the banking system and the Australian dollar. in 1998, 2001, and 2004 the Liberal-National Coalition made several reforms such as changing taxation and industrial systems.
In 2007, Kevin Rudd led the Labor Party to create a modern Australia. they worked on issues such as climate changes and improving the health system in Australia along with improving the education system and workplace laws.
Australia is a dynamic place in the world today. Over 200 languages are spoken here. English is the most common. The nation has a little bit of everything including many international businesses, artistic communities, and diverse religions. there are also many good restaurants, fashionable stores, and unique architectures.
P&O Cruises have announced an exclusive Australia Day short break cruise onboard Pacific Sun departing 25 January.
Sailing through the Sydney heads, she will anchor at Athol Buoy near Mosman overnight, where passengers will be privy to prime views of the city?s Australia Day celebrations including the ?Ferrython?, 21-gun salute and RAAF aerial display.
She will then sail back through the harbour on the evening of 26 January for the Darling Harbour fireworks.
?It?s the first time P&O Cruises has scheduled a cruise allowing passengers to experience Australia Day from the heart of Sydney Harbour and we think it will be an amazing day and night for all onboard Pacific Sun,? said Jenny Lourey, senior vice president, Carnival Australia.
The full story…
Brendan Trembath reported this story on Thursday, August 25, 2011 18:42:00
MARK COLVIN: It’s more than three decades since the movie Jaws was released on the big screen. Just when you thought it was safe to go back in the water another reason to think again.New South Wales Government researchers have revealed the movements of seven mature bull sharks across many of Sydney Harbour’s popular swimming and boating spots. The sharks, fitted with tags, were tracked on Australia Day. but the researchers aren’t alarmed. Reporter Brendan Trembath has been out on the harbour hoping not to be shark bait.BRENDAN TREMBATH: I’m paddling a kayak in Sydney’s Middle Harbour, not far from Balmoral Beach. The water is pretty clear. I’ve seen a few fish but no sharks that I know of. Had I been here on Australia Day this year I would have been sharing the water with a bull shark nearly three metres long. it was one of seven mature bull sharks tracked in the harbour that day by state government researchers.I’m going to give one of them a call. (A phone being dialled)Hello Brendan Trembath from the ABC. Dr Amy Smoothey, tell me about these sharks you tracked on Australia Day?AMY SMOOTHEY: so on Australia Day we had seven sharks that we had tagged that were in and around Sydney Harbour. From our perspective that’s a fantastic thing to try and understand their movement patterns such as where they’re going and at what time of day they’re in certain areas of the harbour.but what’s really interesting is that no-one saw any of these sharks nor any other shark or reported an interaction with one of these animals. so, you know, that’s a great result for us. BRENDAN TREMBATH: how were these sharks tagged in the first place? AMY SMOOTHEY: so what we do is we set commercial style long lines that sit on the seabed of Sydney Harbour and we set 60 hooks per night and if we’re successful in catching a shark we bring it alongside the research vessel, we turn it upside down which puts the shark in a state of temporary paralysis – it’s called tonic immobility – which makes it really easy for the researcher to work on the shark and to prevent the shark from being injured due to being thrashing around once tied up against the side. so when it’s tied up against the side we make a small incision in the abdominal cavity where we put one of these tags that have a transmitting life of up to nine years into their gut cavity. We suture them up and we give them an antibiotic injection. BRENDAN TREMBATH: if you’re getting a signal from near a popular beach don’t you feel like you should be alerting the authorities, the lifesavers or something like that? AMY SMOOTHEY: Absolutely. this program is a safeguard method to try and reduce the interaction with a shark and swimmers in Sydney. but what I must mention is that it’s not real time data. We have to physically go along and retrieve our listening stations from the seabed so we can then get the information and inform the public like we have today. but what happens is that is done every couple of months. We’ve scheduled downloads throughout the year to maximise our detection, log of information, and then we put out a release to let people know.but in addition to this type of research we’re putting out satellite tags on bull sharks. this is a first. It’s not known how successful they will be. Based on the last summer’s results, we’ve put out four satellite tags over the summer and this requires that the shark comes to the surface for a significant period of time with the satellite going ahead simultaneously. Now, you know, the chances of that aren’t always that great but they have provided us with some complementary information to this acoustic telemetry program that we’re running. BRENDAN TREMBATH: And if someone was on a kayak off Balmoral beach today, should they be worried? AMY SMOOTHEY: no, what we’re finding from our research program is that the bull sharks are arriving in Sydney Harbour around late November/early December and generally tending to leave around mid to late April.however, there’s other species that could be in the harbour at the moment such as great white sharks but this is highly unlikely. We were out fishing last night and we didn’t lose a bait so it’s incredibly unlikely that there are many sharks in the harbour at present.but, you know, it’s an open waterway and that is possible that there are sharks there but you know I wouldn’t be fearful if I was out on a kayak in Balmoral today. I would be actually enjoying the weather. BRENDAN TREMBATH: yes it is lovely but I’m looking at the water in a whole new light.MARK COLVIN: Brendan Trembath on his kayak.
There are events in certain countries that get people into a collective festive spirit. in Australia, one such celebration is that historically important day that happens on the 26th day of January each year. an Australia Day cruise along the famous Sydney Harbour is certainly of the most exciting ways to spend this national holiday. Even foreign tourists who visit the country to become part of the festivities make bookings for a fun ride aboard a water vessel while watching all the celebrations taking place around the lovely harbor. these festivities form part of over 5,000 other events that take place all over the country all day and all night.
There are two main options to choose from when planning to get into a cruise on this once-a-year national holiday. The first is doing it during daylight. there are tons of fun things that happen to entertain spectators along and around the harbor. The ‘Ferrython’ showcases various brightly colored ferries on a thrilling race. Around midday, the water becomes full of various watercrafts ranging from yachts to barges to ships and even cranes. these vessels travel within a designated area and contend for the ‘Best Dressed Vessel’ title. next to that would be the magnificent Royal Australian Air Force or RAAF flyover which showcases its fighter planes engaged in brilliant aerial maneuvers over the harbor and to the crowd’s delight.
If you decide to go for an evening boat ride, you will witness the grand finale to an exciting lineup of daylong celebrations. Delight in the wonderfully prepared dinner on board as you watch the dazzling fireworks streaking across the evening sky in the midst of an amazing backdrop that includes world-famous landmarks such as the Sydney Opera House and the Harbour Bridge.
All these would not mean a lot, however, if you don’t have anyone with whom to share it. Make sure you take your family with you for a truly memorable experience. Spending it with friends would also be a great way to strengthen your bond.
If you want to be assured that you and your family will be on board these remarkable cruises, you may want to make your reservations now. It’s never too early to start booking for an Australia Day cruise.
SeaDream Charters Eastern Suburbs
We are looking for two casual waitstaff to work with us on board MV Enigma.
Applicants must have;
- Excellent presentation
- available to work weekends and evenings
Relax in style on one of Sydney’s best luxury Charter Boats – MV Enigma. Proudly owned and operated by SeaDream Charters MV Enigma is something out of the ordinary. Australia’s newest luxury charter boat is now cruising the world’s most stunning harbour and coastline, in style. Enjoy the first class hospitality, luxury and fun of MV Enigma’s private charter service. MV Enigma is available for charter in Sydney throughout the year, including public holiday charters – Christmas Day, Boxing Day, New Years Eve, Australia Day just to name a few.
For more info about us go to http://www.mvenigma.com.au/
Captain James Cook was the first European to reach the region of Sydney, April 29, 1770, anchoring his ship Endeavour in Botany Bay. When the British government sought a place to send convicts, Sir Joseph Banks, botanist on board the Endeavour, recommended Botany Bay on instructions from the British government, Arthur Phillip and the first of eleven ships of the first Fleet arrived in the bay on January 18, 1788. however, there were good sources of fresh water and even a safe anchorage site, which led him to sail north to Port Jackson (later to be known as Sydney Harbour), where he found ideal conditions in Sydney Cove. there, on January 26, 1788, held a ceremony to mark the start of the new colony, new South Wales this date is now celebrated as Australia Day.
The convicts sent there to build roads, bridges, docks, public buildings, and around 1822 the city already had banks, markets, roads policing and public well-established. Major development occurred under the government of Lachlan Macquarie. In 1830, British immigrants began arriving free city in search of a better life in new lands. In 1851 occurred the first of a series of “gold rushes”, which expanded the city and brought rapid growth and consequent development of several suburbs, with the arrival of immigrants from various countries. Industrialization in the late nineteenth century, and the construction of railway lines linking the inner Sydney, attracted even more people to town, and at the beginning of the twentieth century the city had more than one million inhabitants.
During the twentieth century, immigrants arrived primarily from Europe and Asia then. Today Sydney is still receiving a huge number of immigrants now coming from all locations. In recent years, for the first time in history, the number of immigrants from China have been higher than that of any other country, including Britain, historically the largest source of immigrants. Neighborhoods where the Chinese settled in Ashfield and include Chinatown, near the city center. the Italians chose Leichhardt as housing, and the Greeks settled in La Perouse. Strathfield serves to Koreans. many Lebanese and other Arabs living in Bankstown and Liverpool. the Portuguese are present mainly at the Petersham, west of the city.
The urban area of Sydney is in a coastal basin bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north and the Royal National Park to the South it is located on a submerged coastline, where sea levels rose forming deep river valleys (Ria) carved into the sandstone. Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, follow these criteria and is the largest natural harbor in the world. the Sydney area is not affected by significant earthquakes. the urban area has about 70 ports and ocean beaches, including the famous Bondi Beach.Geographically, Sydney lies over two regions: the Cumberland Plain, a relatively flat region lying south and west of the port, and Hornsby Plateau, a sandstone plateau above the north of the port and dissected by steep valleys. the oldest parts of town are located in lowland areas south of the port. the region of the North Shore was slower to develop because of its steep topography and lack of access across the harbor. the Sydney Harbour Bridge was opened in 1932 linking North Shore to the rest of the city.